3. What are the consequences of climate change?
In the future, if the Paris Agreement goal is not reached, limiting the increase in global temperature to 2 °C or less from its pre-industrial level could lead to catastrophic events. Among them the increase in the level of seas and oceans, with serious consequences for island and coastal populations, forcing huge migrations of people and wildlife. The melting of glaciers and other frozen formations are the causes of the increase in the level of the oceans. This, although so far has been measured in fractions of millimeters per year, with 0.4 mm per year since 1993, in the future could exceed several meters if the temperature on the planet continues to rise.
The increase in rainfall in some places, and decrease in others, would have important consequences in the affected regions. In the first case, we would witness floods of large proportions, which in extreme cases could even form new aquatic spaces. In the second, the prolonged droughts would produce the expansion of existing deserts and even the formation of new sands, punished by low rainfall. Another consequence of climate change is the acidification of the oceans, which causes damage to reefs, phytoplankton and marine fauna. Finally, the most serious consequence of climate change would be the mass extinction of species.