The origin of soils is closely related to the formation of the earth’s crust. After the cooling and hardening of the Earth’s surface, a process that lasted hundreds of millions of years, soils emerged. Its formation involved the mechanical dissolution of rocks, the incorporation of particles and substances from air and water, but above all the installation of living beings on the planet, almost from the beginning. Soils are mostly biologically active. Microfauna and microflora enrich the substrate, the medium in which plants fix and nourish themselves, through their depositions, secretions and other activities during their lives, or fermentation or putrefaction after their deaths.
The importance of soil today is that it is the main support of animal and plant life on the planet. In fact, humans live on land or islands, forests developed on soils and most animals currently live on land, even birds spend the night on the ground.
Since intensive agriculture appeared a century and a half ago, the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and other agro-industrial methods have endangered soils. The consequences of soil contamination and degradation are serious. Few know that the speed of soil losses today is greater with which they are formed. There are already those who consider the soil as a non-renewable natural resource.