©First published November 2015 – Updated March 2023

From COP1 to COP28

The Brief History of the COP, Conference of the Parties, is a short summary or timeline of what has happened at the major annual climate conferences. The Brief History of the COP and the Brief History of the COP are original creations of SGK-PLANET, written by Sandor Gerendas-Kiss, first published in 2015. We make this clarification due to imitations that have arisen trying to confuse the public.

The Brief History is updated once or twice a year in order to provide our readers with truthful, recent, summarized and useful information on these important conferences. This edition covers from COP1 (1995) to COP27 (Nov-2022), plus a preview of COP28 (Dec-2023).

This year is COP28

COP28 will take place in the United Arab Emirates, in the city of Dubai, from November 30 to December 12, 2023. More information at the end of this document .

What are COPs? The COP, or Conference of the Parties, is the supreme body of the UNFCCC, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The COP is the most important global climate summit, since 1995 they have been held every year in a different country. The COP is made up of 196 countries plus the European Union, called “the Parties”.

What are the objectives of the COP? The Conference of the Parties was born with the premise of strengthening public awareness on a global scale about the problems related to Climate Change. The COP was created to adopt the necessary decisions to achieve the objectives of the fight against climate change, such as the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, in order to prevent risks to the Earth’s climate system.

Who participates in the COP? Environmental experts, ministers, heads of state, non-governmental organizations and in some meetings civil society and the private sector participate in the annual meetings. In recent years, emphasis has been placed on the participation of young people, creating spaces and events for them.

Why are the COPs annual? Between the first and second Earth Summits (Stockholm 1972 and Rio 1992) 20 years elapsed. In view of the rapid advance of global warming and climate change, it was thought that an annual conference should be held to advance more effectively in the fight against climate change.

COP Conferences, a long history of disagreements and postponements

Although it is true that the world in a quarter of a century has improved its vision on issues such as global warming, climate change, wind energy, solar energy, green hydrogen, green cities and electric cars, much remains to be done.

When you read this Brief History you will be able to make a list of good intentions, ideas, promises, protocols and agreements made, but that have fallen by the wayside. You will see that in many crucial meetings, where everything seemed to be going with the wind in favor, on the last night what had been built with hands for two weeks was torn down with their feet. Note that the phrase that has been repeated the most over the years is “it is postponed for next year”.

1995 COP1, Berlin: the first COP Conference is born

From it came the Berlin Mandate, a kind of rather indefinite catalog of commitments, which allowed countries to choose the initiatives tailored to their particular needs.

1996 COP2, Geneva: consensus to set binding targets

The need to set “binding quantitative targets” on the limitation of GHG emissions by industrialized countries, with precise reductions for 2005, 2010 and 2020, was adopted by consensus. Finally, it was agreed to discuss this matter the following year in Kyoto, Japan.

1997 COP3, Kyoto: the Kyoto Protocol is born with an incorporated death date

COP3 met in the Japanese city and after intense negotiations the famous Kyoto Protocol came to light, which until then, together with the 1987 Montreal Protocol for the protection of the ozone layer, was emerging as one of the two most important documents and hopeful of humanity to regulate anthropogenic activities, capable of recovering the global environment. In Kyoto, binding targets for GHG emissions were established for 37 industrialized countries.

However, two of the largest emitters, the United States and China, did not ratify the document. It was agreed that the Kyoto Protocol would enter into force eleven years later, in 2008, and its expiration date was pre-set for 2012, establishing that developed countries should reduce their GHG emissions by 5% over those five years with respect to the level from 1990.

1998 – 2006: Nine COPs with little progress to report

Between these dates nine conferences were held:

1998 COP4 , Buenos Aires / 1999 COP5 , Bonn / 2000 COP6 , The Hague and (2nd part), Bonn / 2001 COP7 , Marrakesh / 2002 COP8 , New Delhi. / 2003 COP9 , Milan. / 2004 COP10 , Buenos Aires. / 2005 COP11 , Montreal / 2006 COP12 , Nairobi. Nine years were almost wasted, spent mainly on finalizing the details of the Kyoto Protocol, with a view to its approval in 2009.

2007 COP13, Bali: The path towards the replacement of the Kyoto Protocol

During the conference in Indonesia, an important step was taken on the path towards replacing the Kyoto Protocol, without it having been activated. In addition, it was concluded that the signs of global warming are unquestionable, and the “Bali Action Plan” was finally adopted, setting the framework for the negotiations that would lead to COP 15, Copenhagen, two years later.

2008 COP14, Poznan: the look towards Copenhagen

In this Polish city, the program for the transfer of rational ecological technologies for developing countries was received positively and the details were fine-tuned for the important event the following year.

2009 COP15, Copenhagen: Humanity’s great hope ends in great disappointment

Finally, the long-awaited COP15 was reached, a meeting in which immense hope was encrypted. It was thought that the Danish capital would have the privilege of giving the good news to the world, by announcing a new protocol for the reduction of GHG emissions: “the conclusion of a legally binding agreement on climate, valid for all the world, which will be applied from 2012”, as stated in its central objective.

This, in quantifiable terms, meant reducing CO2 emissions to less than 50% by 2050 compared to 1990. But the euphoria did not last long. With three weeks to go before the start of COP15, a meeting was held in Thailand, in which China and the United States decided that the Copenhagen agreements would not be binding. In this way, the fate of the Summit was cast before it began. It was bad news and the few hopes of saving it were buried last night, when the presidents of China, the United States, India, Brazil and South Africa, without the presence of the European representatives, nor the other countries, held a meeting behind closed doors and In barely three pages they drafted a non-binding agreement that was not even put to a vote.

Finally, it was only exposed to the “information” of the attendees, along with the promise that in early 2010 they would work on a political platform, the basis for building binding legal commitments at COP16. The summit, as expected, was described as a failure and a disaster by many governments and environmental organizations. Herman Van Rumpuy, President of the European Council, in a confidential US diplomatic cable, leaked by WikiLeaks, dated January 4, 2010, had very harsh expressions: “Copenhagen was an incredible disaster (…) multilateral summits will not work” , and called the meeting “A Nightmare on Elm Street II” and released the lapidary phrase: “Who wants to see this horror movie again?”

2010 COP16, Cancun: creation of the Green Climate Fund, an essential tool

Among the main agreements reached in Mexico, it is worth highlighting the creation of the Green Climate Fund, through which an amount of one hundred billion dollars is established each year starting in 2020, and thirty billion dollars for the period 2010. -2012, in order to help countries with fewer resources to cover the costs involved in the fight against Climate Change. The final document establishes adopting “as soon as possible” a decision on commitments for a second phase of the Kyoto Protocol that guarantees “that there is no gap between the first and second period of commitments”.

2011 COP17, Durban: birth of the Kyoto-II Protocol and beginning of its demise

The fate of the planet was no better in Durban, South Africa, than in previous years. However, some progress was made by establishing a date for the start of the second period of the Kyoto agreements, with a view to 2013. This presumed a legal vacuum on climate change. The summit concluded with a roadmap for a global treaty, as demanded by the European Union, that would commit the big polluters, those who did not sign the Kyoto Protocol, such as China, the United States, India, Brazil and South Africa to comply with said agreement. treaty. The bad news was that Canada announced its intention not to renew Kyoto, seconded by Japan and Russia. This bucket of cold water ended all hopes of the Kyoto II Protocol.

2012 COP18, Doha: Kyoto is extended, but it is already impossible to revive it

It had been anticipated for some time that there would be no major shocks in Qatar since its objectives did not seem complicated, although in practice the road was strewn with obstacles. The 194 countries gathered reached a minimum agreement, the “Doha Climate Gate”, which extended the Kyoto Protocol until 2020. Negotiations on further donations from developing countries were deferred to the following year. Most of the delegations expressed their discomfort that the final agreement did not meet the scientific recommendations, which called for vigorous action to counteract global warming. Carbon dioxide emissions for 2012 were already double the rates of 1990.

2013 COP19, Warsaw: mass abandonment of the summit

The initial objective in Poland was to reach an agreement so that by 2015 emissions of polluting gases could be reduced. However, this agreement was opposed by several countries, including the host, which has a coal-based industry. A roadmap towards a global and binding pact was finally finalized in 2015, but many loopholes remained, which had to be resolved at the Lima summit the following year.

A notable fact was that, with one day left before the end of the summit, there was a massive abandonment of the NGOs and the unions, something unprecedented up to that moment in the COPs. The main NGOs criticized “the retrograde positions of Japan and Australia, as well as the lack of commitment of the most developed countries, which turn a deaf ear to the prevailing need of the poorest and most vulnerable to climate change”. They denounced that “the European Union remains tied up by the Polish positions and the coal industry”, impeding the process of fighting climate change.

2014 COP20, Lima: great expectations and preparations for Paris, 2015

In the Peruvian capital, the most important fact was that the United States and China announced a joint commitment to reduce GHG emissions for the first time in history, essential so that the global temperature does not exceed 2°C (later corrected to 1.5°C, on the recommendation of scientists from the IPCC, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The UN considered that the objective was to reduce emissions between 40% and 70% by 2050, and to 0% by the end of the century. The agreement, finally ratified, was an agreement that brought positions closer to Paris 2015.

2015 COP21, Paris: the Paris Agreement is born

The Paris Agreement is an ambitious global agreement to combat Climate Change, negotiated within the framework of COP21. It was adopted by 197 countries, in Paris, on December 15, 2015, and its signing officially began on April 22, 2016, Earth Day. Its application would begin in 2020. The Paris Agreement contemplates the limitation of world temperature to 2°C (subsequently corrected to 1.5°C), by reducing GHG emissions, caused by fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal, which cause the greenhouse effect and consequently climate change, such as rising sea levels, floods, landslides, hurricanes, tornadoes, forest fires and other catastrophic phenomena, capable of endangering many species that inhabit the Earth, including Homo sapiens.

It is fair to recognize that the Paris Agreement, with its goals to reduce temperatures and greenhouse gas emissions, is an inducer of countries, cities, industries, universities and people. With them, significant growth is being achieved in the production of cars and transport systems powered by clean fuels, such as green hydrogen, an accelerated manufacture of photovoltaic solar panels and a large number of wind generators, to supply millions of clean electricity. of people in the world.

See related article: The Paris Agreement, the hope of humanity

2016 COP22, Marrakech: a technical meeting

The twenty-second edition of the COP was held in the Moroccan capital, characterized by its low profile and scant media coverage, for which some have called it a “technical meeting”. At this meeting, a working paper was adopted to apply the Paris Agreement and a roadmap was approved that would lead to the rules that will guide the essential agreement. COP24, Poland 2018, was established for its conclusion and start of its implementation, a kind of bridge towards 2020, when the implementation of the Paris Agreement begins.

2017 COP23, Fiji-Bonn: first COP with two host countries

Between November 6 and 17, 2017, the twenty-third Conference of the Parties on Climate Change was held in Bonn. The German city provided the space, infrastructure and part of the organization necessary for the event. Fiji, a tiny island country in Polynesia whose low elevation makes it highly vulnerable to the foreseeable effects of climate change, chaired the conference. Its Prime Minister, Frank Bainimarama, assumed the COP23 presidency determined to maintain the momentum of the Paris Agreement. It is noteworthy that Bainimarama was very active and enthusiastic during and after COP23.

The United States showed up to the conference with a low-ranking delegation, following President Donald Trump’s decision to leave the Paris Agreement. The speech of the representative of China showed a more active role compared to previous conferences.

Everything went as normal until the last night when the meeting was paralyzed, which lasted until the wee hours of the morning. Miguel Arias Cañete, European Commissioner for Climate Action, told EFE: “Nations that have not raised objections throughout the process prior to and during this climate summit are raising them at this time in the hope of achieving results for their countries”.

2018 COP24, Katowice: controversy over the IPCC report

Between December 3 and 14, 2018, in the city of Katowice, Poland, COP24 was held, under the motto “Let’s change together”. This would be the third time that Poland would serve as the venue for these important conferences. The 24th Conference of the Parties was one of the most secretive and least newsworthy meetings we have seen. Perhaps the place and the date chosen contributed to the little media coverage and the little interest on the part of the public during the event, which only picked up, and only in part, once the summit was over.

The controversy that occurred in Katowice this time was not about the Paris Agreement, but about the document from the IPCC, a group of scientists from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which presented its “Fifth Assessment Report” in October 2018, whose main The objective is to limit the rise in temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius from its pre-industrial level. This goal, according to said report, “will require unprecedented changes” at a social and global level, due to the seriousness of the planet’s situation, due to the sustained increase in world temperature, and all its foreseeable consequences.

An oil quartet made up of the United States, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait did not welcome the report. The United States argued that welcoming it meant accepting it. President Trump expressed that he did not agree with the IPCC report, nor did he believe in its content. The representative of Saudi Arabia went further and behind the scenes dared to say that “the Paris Agreement is dead”.

WWF Spain summed up what happened in Poland like this: “World leaders came to Katowice with the task of responding to the latest data from climate science, which has made it very clear that we only have 12 years to cut emissions in half and avoid a catastrophic global warming. Progress has been made, but what we have seen in Poland reveals a fundamental lack of understanding of the current climate urgency by some countries. Everyone’s future is at stake. We need all countries to commit to increasing climate ambition by 2020.”

2019 COP25, Chile-Madrid: Spain saves the conference

COP25 began in an unprecedented way, since Chile, the host and organizer of the conference throughout the year, had to cancel it at the last minute, due to the situation of political instability that had occurred in the country since October. When everything indicated that it was impossible to meet the scheduled date, Madrid managed to organize the conference in record time, thanks to the timely intervention of the IFEMA group of companies, and saves its holding on the scheduled date. Therefore, COP25 was held in Madrid, the capital of Spain, between December 2 and 15, with the motto “Time to Act”.

25,000 people and 196 countries attended. Notably absent were Xi Jinping from China, Angela Merkel from Germany, Vladimir Putin from Russia, Donald Trump from the United States, Emmanuel Macron from France, Jair Bolsonaro from Brazil and Sebastián Piñera from Chile. Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, was present with a delegation of representatives and senators from her country. “By coming to the COP, we want to say that we are still here,” said the senator.

The three controversial issues, in which no agreements were reached:

  1. The ambition chapter. The problem refers to the ambition of the main emitting countries (Russia, China, the United States, India, Saudi Arabia and others from the Persian Gulf). They refuse to cut their production of fossil fuels.

Recommended reading: Frequently Asked Questions about Climate Ambition.

  1. carbon markets . The goal was to create a regulatory framework for a global carbon trading system, a complex issue included in Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. It was finally deferred.

Recommended reading: Frequently Asked Questions about carbon markets.

  1. Land use and oceans. The text recognizes the importance of the oceans and soils in the climate system. In response to IPCC special reports released during 2019, the Bonn Climate Convention would hold an ocean dialogue and a land use dialogue in a June 2020 session. The two-day delay was due to Brazil’s resistance to accept the document on the topic “Land use and oceans”. Finally, minimal agreements were reached.

At the end of the meeting, its top officials expressed their disagreement with the results.

Antonio Guterres , Secretary General of the UN, said: “The international community has missed an important opportunity to show greater ambition in mitigation, adaptation and finance to face the climate crisis (…) but we must not give up”. He added that he was “more determined than ever to work to make 2020 the year in which all countries commit to doing what the science is telling us.”

Carolina Schmidt , president of COP25, expressed: “We are not satisfied. The agreements were not enough to urgently face the climate change crisis. There is still no consensus to increase ambition to the levels we need. The new generations expect more from us. Women, young people and children ask us for a stronger, more urgent and more ambitious response to be able to act”.

Teresa Ribera , Minister for the Ecological Transition of the Government of Spain, indicated: “We would have liked to hear much stronger, much more serious commitments from the large economies.”

Patricia Espinosa , executive secretary of the UNFCCC, admitted that “The talks did not lead to an agreement. The disagreement between developed and developing nations was on guidelines for a much-needed carbon market, an essential part of the ambition-raising toolkit that can harness the potential of the private sector and generate financing for adaptation (…)”.

2020 COP26, Glasgow: the conference that did not take place due to the 2019 COVID pandemic

In a statement dated April 1, 2020, the UN announced that the summit had been canceled that year and advised that it would take place between November 1 and 12, 2021. Since its creation, no COP had been postponed until COP26 had to be postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

2021 COP26, Glasgow: climate change does not wait and the planet is impatient

After a long wait, COP26 could finally be held. Under the motto “Uniting the world to face climate change”, it was held between October 31 and November 12, 2021. The appointment was in Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland, England. Alok Sharma was the chairman of the summit. The main goal of COP26 was to keep alive the 1.5°C relative to the pre-industrial era.


Representatives of the delegations of the 197 parties attended, about 130 heads of state and government and 40,000 participants from civil society, indigenous peoples, youth groups, charities, academics, artists and companies.

Absent representatives

Xi Jinping , President of China. Vladimir Putin , President of Russia. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan , President of Turkey. Jair Bolsonaro , President of Brazil. Manuel López Obrador , President of Mexico. Ebrahim Raisi , President of Iran. Cyril Ramaphosa , president of South Africa did not attend because his country rejects the ban on the use of coal.

Main objectives of COP26

  1. Ensure zero emissions worldwide by mid-century and maintain 1.5°C by the year 2100. To do this, countries must phase out coal, curb deforestation and accelerate the shift towards greener economies.
  2. Adapt as much as possible to protect communities and natural habitats . As the climate is already changing, countries affected by climate change must protect and restore ecosystems, as well as build resilient defense, warning and infrastructure systems.
  3. Mobilize climate finance . At COP15, the nations with the greatest resources pledged to contribute $100 billion a year to the least developed nations by 2020 to help them adapt to climate change and mitigate further increases in temperatures. That promise has not been fulfilled either that year or in 2021. Being postponed to 2022.
  4. Work together to achieve the objectives. This means building partnerships between governments, business and civil society and fine-tuning the Paris Agreement to make it fully operational. In addition to the formal negotiations, COP26 is expected to establish new initiatives and coalitions to combat the effects of climate change.


DW: “COP26… made decisions that a few years ago would have been unthinkable. But the pressure to make it happen was also enormous,” said Jens Thurau . DW’s special envoy to Glasgow added: “Was COP26 in Glasgow good or bad? As chaotic and confusing as the meeting was, there are various points of view to answer this question.

WWF: “COP 26 closure disappoints, but a slim opportunity remains for a 1.5°C future. Timeframes and ways of operating are needed if we are to get off fossil fuels… We came to Glasgow expecting leaders to accept a sea change in the pace and scale of climate action. While we did not get the radical change, and the agreed text is far from perfect, we are moving in the right direction.

Greenpeace: Although the agreement recognizes the need to reduce emissions in this decade, those commitments have been left for next year. Young people who have reached adulthood in a climate crisis will not tolerate many more results like this. Why should they if they are fighting for their future? …, explains the executive director of Greenpeace International, Jennifer Morgan

El Sol de México: “The Mexican delegation criticized the way in which the coal pact was reached, pointing out that the summit has not been inclusive or transparent, and regretted, along with other nations, the unambitious language in the process to put an end to fossil fuels.”

El Colombiano: “There were two weeks of negotiations, agreements and disagreements, promises and commitments between 197 countries and many more organizations and private and public entities. The result is a roadmap that will literally decide the future of the planet…”

2022 COP27, Sharm El-Sheikh “Either we cooperate, or we perish”

Where and when did COP27 take place?

In the Egyptian city of Sharm El-Sheikh, under the motto “Together for implementation”, with the assistance of 35,000 people, including representatives of governments, observers and civil society, COP27 was held between November 6 and 18, 2022. a year of extreme weather events across the globe.

“Either we cooperate, or we perish”, warned Antonio Guterres at the opening of COP27

Guterres stressed that “Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are so high that we will barely be able to limit warming to 1.5°C…it is already too late for many glaciers and melting will continue for hundreds, or even thousands of years, with serious consequences for water security”.

This, added to the scientific data that reiterates that “the world is not doing enough to reduce carbon emissions and protect the future of our planet”.

The COP27 agenda

Nov 06. COP27 Opening / 07-08 World Leaders Summit / 09. Finance Day / 10. Science Day / 10. Youth and Future Generations Day / 11. Decarbonization Day / 12. Day of Agriculture and Adaptation / 14. Gender Day / Water Day / 15. ACE and Civil Society Day / Energy Day / 16. Biodiversity Day / 17. Solutions Day. Source official page of the COP27.

Who’s who at COP27

The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Abdelfatah El-Sisi, gave the welcome message. Sameh Shoukry, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt, was elected president of COP27 for the period 2022-2023. The summit was led by Simon Stiell, born in the Caribbean Grenada, executive secretary of the UN Framework Convention since August 2022, successor to Mrs. Patricia Espinoza.

The great absent

Some of the largest economies and most polluting countries on the planet, such as China, Russia and India, did not attend COP27, despite the importance of the issues to be discussed.

The ones that did appear

An article published in the newspaper El País of Spain denounced in a headline “The climate summit in Egypt brings together more fossil fuel lobbyists than the one in Glasgow” and as a subtitle: “An analysis denounces the presence of 636 people linked to oil, gas and coal companies registered to participate in COP27”. Something unusual and unacceptable, in our opinion.

Minimal progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

On this crucial issue, there was hardly any progress, to the point that the Vice-President of the European Commission, Frans Timmermans, had harsh words regarding the results of the summit, which he described as “unacceptable regression”, and threatened to leave COP27 if not global warming limit of 1.5ºC is maintained.

“We will be clear, the partners of the European Union are here to bring home a good result. We’d rather have no decision than have a bad decision”.

The newspaper El País, on Nov 20, noted: “The lack of ambition in the climate fight stalls the final negotiations of COP27”. And a few lines below he said: “COP27 represents progress, although it does not satisfy everyone”.

The extension of COP27 due to the topic “Loss and damage”

This year we had heat waves, river overflows, floods, tropical cyclones, landslides, towns wiped off the map, countries like Venezuela, Haiti, Pakistan and many others, or large territories like the State of Florida, with a balance of severe damage. We have seen climatic calamities that have caused death and destruction, with significant loss and damage to families and countries. Science attributes the cause of the increase in the frequency and intensity of these phenomena to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, mainly due to the most industrialized countries. Developing countries are the most affected and therefore argue that they should receive compensation for the “loss and damage” suffered.

Failing to reach an agreement by the deadline, on the 19th the negotiators finally reached conclusions on the thorniest points on the agenda, including establishing a mechanism on loss and damage, without defining for now how this mechanism will be financed.

The decision was baptized with the name of “Sharm el Sheikh Implementation Plan”, in which it has been calculated that “the global transformation towards a low-carbon economy requires investments of at least 4 to 6 billion dollars per year anus”. Obtaining this financing will require a rapid and complete transformation of the financial system and its structures and processes, with the participation of governments, central banks, commercial banks, institutional investors and other financial actors.

Opinions and Critics

The COP presidency has revealed on Saturday 11-19-2022, at 1:00 p.m., the draft of the final declaration of the meeting. This document should have made reference to the phasing out of all fossil fuels and barely mentions coal. Nor does it say that world emissions must reach their peak in 2025 to keep the 1.5 degree objective alive, as Europe demanded. Timmermans, as we saw, called it an “unacceptable setback”, and threatened to walk out of COP27.

For his part, Guterres noted: “Clearly this will not be enough, but it is a much-needed political signal to rebuild broken trust… this conference has taken an important step towards justice. I welcome the decision to establish a fund for loss and damage and to launch it in the next period.”

For Ecologists in Action “Regarding mitigation, the final text has no progress compared to COP26 in Glasgow… it is inadmissible that a year has been lost in the fight against the climate emergency”.

The opinion of SGK-PLANET: again, as almost every year, the unpleasant taste of postponement was felt, the desire to postpone for later the “uncomfortable” issues, especially those that touch big interests. The phasing out of fossil fuels was not expressed in the document.


The problem with COPs is that they feel like repeat movies that end with uncomfortable issues being postponed to the following year. All in all, there are people satisfied with the results this year because at the last minute, in the days of the extension, it was possible to approve, with forceps, the money to cover the costs of eventual “losses and damages” attributable to climate change. We have to celebrate this.

2023 COP28, Dubai

The United Arab Emirates will host the 28th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP28) in November 2023.

The event will take place at Expo City Dubai “to unite the world towards agreement on bold, practical and ambitious solutions to the most pressing global challenge of our time”.

COP28 “is of particular importance as it marks the conclusion of the first Global Stocktake, a comprehensive assessment of the progress made in achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. Recognizing that the world is off track, COP28 President-designate Dr Sultan Al Jaber has said he will work to keep the 1.5°C target alive and ensure the world responds to the Stocktake with a clear plan of action, including measures that must be put in place to close the gaps in progress.

As host, the United Arab Emirates will mobilize action around a “major course correction” to accelerate emissions reductions and ensure energy security. Dr. Al Jaber has also highlighted the role of the UAE in building bridges to advance international efforts that will support the Global South and the most vulnerable countries. Taken from the UAE-COP28 page.

“We need to reverse emissions while moving economies forward and enabling an inclusive and just transition that leaves no one behind. For this reason we are determined to make COP28 a COP for all and a COP of Action”.

HE Dr. Sultan Al Jaber , President Designate of COP28”.

Source: United Nation Climate Change

©2015-2023 Sandor Alejandro Gerendas-Kiss / SGK-PLANET