3. What are the objectives of the Paris Agreement?
The main objective of the Paris Agreement is to fight against climate change to limit the increase in world temperature to 2 °C, from the pre-industrial era, before the end of the century. To achieve this goal, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced, those that come from fossil fuels, until their total eradication. Through the premise of “Zero fossil fuels”, it is intended to replace these with renewable, alternative or clean energy. The Paris Agreement also proposes measures to combat climate change such as mitigation, adaptation and resilience, but what do these words mean?
Mitigation. It is a term that means to attenuate or soften a negative thing, such as an illness or a headache. In the case of global warming, mitigation refers to the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) or fossil fuels until their total eradication. They also include the improvement of the sumps to increase the absorption capacity of said gases. Likewise, programs such as carbon taxes and incentives for voluntary GHG reduction and clean energy substitution are considered.
Adaptation. It refers to the actions that must be carried out to prevent changes that can produce undesired effects. In the case of global warming, adaptation refers to initiatives and measures that reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change. Countries and communities must implement preventive measures and practices to avoid probable harm. Short and long-term measures must be contemplated, through environmental management, planning and disaster management.
Resilience. It is the capacity of adaptation of a living being to face a disturbing agent or an adverse state or situation. In the case of global warming and climate change, resilience refers to the capacity of an ecosystem to absorb disturbances, without significantly altering its structural and functional characteristics, and can return to its original state after the disturbance factor has ceased. The Paris Agreement places special emphasis on increasing the capacity for adaptation, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change.